An embedded system is compact, economical and versatile for many household and industrial applications. Despite all these merits, an embedded system may have some realistic constraints. A normal desktop computer may show a software defects at any time which can be repaired by reloading of the software or by some other corrective tools. But software defects found in an embedded system during its running or defects develop after its deployment is not very easy to remove. To rewrite and reload a program in the embedded system is time consuming. A normal user cannot do that correction himself. It needs expertise. An embedded system used for serious application like aircraft flying or automatic car driving must not fail in crucial time. It must have fail proof mechanism. Therefore an embedded system must be carefully checked for its correctness several times before leaving the manufacturing lines. Its correctness must be guaranteed. Keeping in view the complexity of operations in some applications along with the limited processing power and memory of embedded system, writing software for such system is more challenging than developing software for a normal PC. Due to its real time characteristics, the operating system run in an embedded system is called Real Time Operating System (RTOS).
An embedded system is fast in response to its inputs, small in size, consumes low power and overall it is reliable in operations. These are generally designed for real time applications. Therefore their power requirement and size should be small enough to incorporate them in practical applications. To minimise their size and power requirement, the hardware is provided in the form of a microcontroller which provide computation engine, input/output facilities, communication ports, user interface, memory and display etc.

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